Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Sub Surface Soil at Different Dumpsites in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Akinnusotu and Arawande, 2016. Volume 8: 21-28

Open Access – Research Article

Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Sub Surface Soil at Different Dumpsites in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
Akinyinka Akinnusotu 1, *, Jacob OlalekanArawande 1
1 Science Laboratory Technology Department, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Abstract: The physiochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations in sub-surface soil at five different dumpsites in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria were investigated with a view to ascertain the level of pollution. Standard analytical methods for soil analysis were used for the physicochemical parameters while atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the heavy metals analysis. The result showed that the pH value in soil sample from these sites ranged between 6.20±0.20-7.82±0.05. Percentage organic carbon and organic matter were in the range of 1.00±0.02-1.93±0.01 and 1.69±0.01-3.27±0.02 respectively. Heavy metal concentration for Pb and Zn were ranged between 0.21±0.01-0.46±0.01mg/kg and 0.50±0.02-7.25±0.03mg/kg. Cadmium was not detected from all the sites including the control. Cr concentration ranged between 1.22±0.02-2.03±0.06 while Fe concentration ranged between 294.60±0.20-408.47±0.23 mg/kg. Nickel concentration ranged between 0.01±0.01-0.02±0.01mg/kg. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals and physicochemical parameters of soil samples from dumpsites location at Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, were within limits of Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) standards.

Keywords: Environment, Health, Anthropogenic, Organic carbon, Urbanization.  

*Corresponding author: Akinyinka Akinnusotu

Cite this article as Akinnusotu, A. and J.O. Arawande. 2016. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals concentration in sub surface soil at different dumpsites in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 8: 14-20. [Abstract] [View FullText] [Citations].

Title: Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Sub Surface Soil at Different Dumpsites in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Akinyinka Akinnusotu and Jacob Olalekan Arawande

Pages: 21-28

Copyright © Akinnusotu and Arawande, 2016. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.


Abdus-Salam, N., M.S. Ibrahim, and F.T. Fatoyinbo. 2011. Dumpsites in Lokoja, Nigeria: A silent pollution zone for underground water. Waste Mang. Bio. Tech. J. 1:21-30.

Adie, G.U. and O. Osibanjo. 2009. Assessment of soil pollution by slag from an automobile battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria. Afri. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 3 (9): 239-250.

Agber, P.I., A. Ali, and N.A. Isaku. 2013. Assessment of groundwater quality, soil properties and nutrient content of soil in areas close to municipal refuse dumpsites in Markudi, Nig. J. Biol. Chem. Res. 30(1): 88-97.

Akinbile, C.O. 2012. Environmental impact of landfill on groundwater quality and agricultural soils in Nigeria. Soil Water Res., 7, (1):18-26.

Alimba, C.G, A.A. Bakare, and C.A. Latunji. 2006. Municipal landfill leachates induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells. Afr. J. Biotech, 5 (22): 2053-2057.

Anikwe, M.A.N. and K.C.A. Nwobodo. 2002. Long term effect of municipal waste disposal on soil properties and productivity of sites used for urban agriculture in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Bio. Technol., 83: 241-250.

Azeez, J.O., O.A. Hassan and P.O. Egunjobi. 2011. Soil contamination at dumpsites: Implication of soil heavy metals distribution in municipal solid waste disposal system: A case study of Abeokuta, Southwester Nigeria. Soil Sediment Contamination: An Inter. J. 20(4):370-386.

Bakare, A.A., A.A.Mosuroand O. Osibanjo. 2005. An in vivoevaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology in mice by landfill Leachates. Mutat. Res. 582: 28-34.

Bennett, E. M., S.R. Carpenter, and N.F. Caraco. 2001. Human Impact on Erodable Phosphorus and Eutrophication: A Global PerspectiveIncreasing accumulation of phosphorus in soil threatens rivers, lakes, and coastal oceans with eutrophication. BioSci.. 51: 227-234.[0227:HIOEPA]2.0.CO;2

Birke, M. and U. Rauch. 2000. Urban geochemistry: Investigations in the Berlin metropolitan area. Env. Geo. Health 22: 233–248.

Bityukova, L., A. Shogenova and M. Birke. 2000. Urban geochemistry: A study of elements distributions in the soils of Tallin (Estonia). Env. Geo. Health 22: 73-193.

Burghart, W. 1994. Soils in urban and industrial environments. J. Plant Nutri. Soil Sci. 157(3): 205-214.
Castro-González, M.I., M. Méndez-Armenta. 2008. Heavy metals: Implications associated to fish consumption. Env. Toxic. Pharm. 26: 263-271.

Cheng, K. I. and R. H. Bray. 1951. Determination of calcium and magnesium in soil and plant material. Soil Sci. 721 449-458.

Craine, J. M., N. Fierer and K.K.McLauchlan. 2010. Widespread coupling between the rateand temperature sensitivity of organic matter decay. Nature Geosci. 3, 854–857.

Daniel, C.H. 2003. Quantitative chemical analysis.Sixth edition. W.H. Freeman company, New York, pp. 132-145, 364, 710-711.

Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). 2002. Environmental guidelines and standards for the petroleum industries in Nigeria (revised edition). Department of Petroleum Resources, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Abuja, Nigeria.

Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). 1990. Guideline for soil desemplain 3rd Edition (Review). Soil resources management and conservation services. Land and Water Development Division FAO – Rome.

Ibitoye A.A. 2001. Effect of municipal refuse dump on soil and quality. J Appl. Soil Sci. 2: 16-25.

Ikem, A., O. Osiobanjo, M.K.C. Sridhar, and A. Sobande. 2002. Evaluation of ground water quality characteristics near two waste sites in Ibadan and Lagos, Nigeria. Water, Air and Soil Pollut. 140: 307-333.

Jomova, K. and M.Valko. 2010. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human
disease. Toxico. 283: 65–87.

Jung, C.H., T. Matsuto and N. Tanaka. 2006. Flow analysis of metals in a municipal solid waste management system. J. of waste manag.26: 1337-1348.

Kabata-Pendias, A. (1995): Agricultural problems related to excessive trace metal contents of soil, in “heavy metals (problems and solutions)”, (Ed. W. Salomons, U. Förstner and P. Mader), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Tokyo,p 3-18.

Kadem, D.E.D., O. Rached, A.Krika, and Z. Gheribi-Aoulmi. 2004. Statistical analysis of vegetation incidence on contamination of soil by heavy metals (Pb, Ni and Zn) in the vicinity of an iron steel industrial plant in Algeria.Environ.15: 447-462.

Kiekens, L. 1995. Zinc. Heavy metals in soil.2nd edition. Alloway, BJ. Blackie Academic and professional.Glasgow, U.K. pp. 284-305.

Kimble, J.M., R.J. Ahrens and R.B. Eds Bryant (eds). 1999. Classification, correlation and management of anthropogenic soils, proceedings-Nevada and Califonia, Sept. 21-Oct., 2, 1998 USDA-NRCS, Nat. Soil-Survey Centre, Lincoln, NE. p 226.

Li, X.D., C.S. Poon and P.S. Liu. 2001. Heavy metal contamination of urban soil and street dusts in Hong Kong. Appl. Geo. 16:1361-1368.

Longe, E.O. and M.R. Balogun2010. Ground water Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2(1), 39-44.

Muhammad, A.R, H.Shahidaand and J. Farkhanda. 2011. Effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium on farm plantations of various agro eclogical zones of Punjab, Pakistan. Afri. J. of Plant Science Vol. 5(5), pp. 450-459.

Olarinoye, I. O., I. Sharifat, and M. T. Kolo. 2009. Heavy metal content of soil samples from two major dumpsites in Minna. J. of Nat. and Appl. Sci. 11:1.

Ogundiran, O.O. and T.A. Afolabi. 2008. Assessment of the physicochemical parameters and heavy metal toxicity of leachates from municipal solid waste open dumpsite. Int. j. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5: (2) 243-250.

Oguntimehin, I.O., K.O. Ipinmoroti, and A.I. Aiyesanmi. 2005. Evaluation of heavy metals in soils at automobile workshop in Akure. Nig. J. of Sci. 15(2): 151-153.

Oguntimehin, I.O. and E.K. Ipinmoroti.2008. Profile of heavy metals from Automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria. J. of Environ. Sci. and Tech. 1:19-26.

Palmer, S.R., F.D.J.Dunstan, H. Fielder,D.L.Fone, G. Higgs and M.L. Senior. 2005. Risk of congenital anomalies after the opening of Landfill sites. Environ. Health Perspec.113(10): 1362-1365.

Paterson, E., M.Sanka,and L. Clark. 1996. Urban soils as pollutant sinks – acase study from Aberdeen, Scotland. Appl. Geo. 11: 129–131.

Romic, M., and D. Romic. 2003. Heavy metal distribution in agricultural top soils in urban area. Environ. Geo.43: 795-805.

Shanker, A.K., C. Cervantes,H. Loza-Tavera and S. Avudainayagamdets. 2005. Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ. Int. 31: 739-753.

Shrivastava, S.K. and D.K. Benerjee. 2004. Speciation of metals in sewage sludge and sludgeamended soils. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 152:219-232.

Slake, R.J., J.R.Grorrnow and N.Voulvoulis. 2005. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: Contaminants in leachate. Sci. Total Environ. 337:119-137.

Sollins, P., C. Swanston and M. Kramer. 2007. Stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter—a new focus. Biogeochemistry 85, 1–7.

Tessier, A., P.G.C. Campbell and M.Bisson. 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem., 51: 844-851.

Tokar, E.J., L.Benbrahim-Tallaa and, M.P. Waalkes. 2011. Metal ions in human cancer development. Metal Ions on Life Sci. 8: 375-401.

Tovid, O.O., R.A.Olowu, B.A. Moronkola, O.O. Ayejuwoand and A.A. Adeniyi. 2011. Speciation of heavy metal (Cd and Pb) of some dumped sitesoil in Lagos State, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2(6): 247-253.

Udosen, E.D., E.I. Udoessien and U.J. Ibok. 1990. Evaluation of some metals in the industrial wastes from in persist industry and their environmental pollution implication. Nig. J. Technol Res., 2:7-17.

Parth, V., N.N. Murthy and P.R. Saxena. 2011. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): Natural and anthropogenic implications. J. Env. Res. Manag. 2 (2): 27-34.

Van Kamp, I., K., Leidelmeijer, G. Marsman,, A. de Hollander. 2003. Urban environmental quality and human well-being. Towards a conceptual framework and demarcation of concepts; a literature study, Landscape Urban Plan. 65: 5-18.

Vrijheid, M. 2000. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature. Environ Health Perspect.108: 101- 112.

Walkley, A. and I. A. Black. 1934. An examination of degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37:29-37.

Yang, Y., E. Patersonand C. Campbell. 2001. Accumulation of heavymetals in urban soils and impacts on microorganisms. Huan JingKeXue 22 (3), 44–48.

Join Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS)

Interested to join the JEAS Team

Join JEAS as a member Editorial Board see Editors’ Responsibilities

Join JEAS as a member Review Panel  Reviewers’ Responsibilities

(send your CV through email at

JEAS Indexing Journal of Environmental EAS is indexed by reputed indexing services.

Suggest Indexing service/s through email (

Call for Articles
Submit Your research for publication in the “Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS)” through email:

JEAS Recently Published and Highly Cited Articles
Citation record of JEAS: JEAS Google Scholar page
Follow  JEAS Facebook

Subscribe to Get JEAS Updates

We’d love to keep you updated with our latest articles and news 😎

We don’t spam! Read our [link]privacy policy[/link] for more info.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *