Effect of Aflatoxin on Maize Production in Nigeria – Abstract

Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Arifalo et al., 2022. Volume 24(3&4): 11-22

Open Access – Research Article

Assessing the Effect of Aflatoxin on Maize Production in
Southwest Nigeria
S.F. Arifalo 1, ⃰, O.A. Thompson 1, ⃰, O.O. Ibiloro 1
1 Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT), The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria

Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effect of aflatoxin on maize production in the study area. This was achieved by comparing the profitability and output of maize farmers not affected by aflatoxin and those affected in the southwest of Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to sample 400 respondents (200 maize farmers not affected by aflatoxin, and 200 maize farmers affected by aflatoxin). The result revealed that the net profit margin of the majority of maize farmers (36.33%) was not affected by aflatoxin. However, the profit margin of affected maize farmers was 26.66%. The study revealed that age, household size, fertilizer application, and awareness of combating aflatoxin had negative value but a significant relationship with combating aflatoxin using agro-chemical in the study area. The output of maize farmers affected by aflatoxin was 15.94% lower compared to the not affected maize farmers. The study opines that maize farmers ought to be sensitized and encouraged by policymakers and non-government organizations on the need to combat aflatoxin to increase their maize production.
Keywords: Maize farmers, Aflatoxin, Output, Endogenous Switching Regression Model, Southwest Nigeria, Toxicity
*Corresponding author: S.F. Arifalo, email: oathompson@futa.edu.ng

Cite this article as:
Arifalo, S.F., O.A. Thompson and O.O. Ibiloro. 2022. Assessing the effect of aflatoxin on maize production in
Southwest Nigeria
. Journal of Environmental& Agricultural Sciences. 24(3&4):11-22.
[Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]

Copyright © Arifalo et al., 2022. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.

Similar Articles Published in JEAS

  • Gani, B., D. Rukwe and Y. Elizabeth. 2020. Economics of Sweet Potato Marketing in Zing Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 22(1): 17-22. [Abstract] [ View Full-Text]
  • Peiretti, P. G., S. Tassone and G. Masoero. 2015. Lipid maturity trend in crops as characterized by alfa linolenic acid decay and by NIRS study. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 5: 4-16.

    Title: Lipid maturity trend in crops as characterized by α-linolenic acid decay and by NIRS study

    Authors: Pier Giorgio Peiretti, Sonia Tassone, and Giorgio Masoero

    Pages: 04-16

  • Hashmi, M. S., P. Haščík, I. Elimam, J. Garlík and M. A. Bashir. 2015. Influences of Propolis use on Technical, Cost and Allocative Efficiencies of Meat Production in Ross-308 Broilers. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 5: 62-70.

    Title: Influences of Propolis use on Technical, Cost and Allocative Efficiencies of Meat Production of Ross 308 Broilers

    Authors: Muhammad Sadiq Hashmi, Peter Haš?ík, Ibrahim Elimam, Jozef Garlík, Muhammad Amjad Bashir

    Pages: 62-70

  • Bajwa, B. E., M. N. Aslam and A. H. Malik. 2015. Food security and socio-economic conditions of women involved in kitchen gardening in Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies. 4:1-5.

    Title: Food Security and Socio-Economic Conditions of Women Involved in Kitchen Gardening in Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan

    Authors: Babar E. Bajwa, Muhammad Naeem Aslam, Aamir Humayun Malik

    Pages: 01-05

Competing Interest Statement: All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

List of Abbreviations: ATE, Average Treatment Effect; ESR, Endogenous Switching Regression; IITA, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture; LGA, Local Government Area; NPMR, Net Profit Margin Ratio; SSA, Sub-Sahara Africa.

Author’s Contribution: Conceptualization, M.W.H. and K.Z.; Data curation, R.A. and A.U.M.; Formal analysis, M.W.H., K.Z. and M.M.J.; Funding acquisition, A.U.M., M.A. and B.E.B.; Investigation and Methodology, M.W.H., K.Z. and M.A.G.; Resources, Y.M. and C.M.A.; Validation, M.W.H. and K.Z.; Visualization, A.U.M.; Writing – original draft, M.W.H. and R.R.; Writing – review & editing, K.Z.

Acknowledgment: Funds for this research were provided by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under the project “Strengthening vegetable value chains in Pakistan for greater community livelihood benefits” (HORT/2016/012).

Achaglinkame, M. A. 2017. Aflatoxin contamination in cereals and legumes to reconsider usage as complementary food ingredients for Ghanaian infants: A review. J. Nutrit. Intermediary Metabolism.10:1-7.

Agbetiameh, D., A. Ortega-Beltran, R. T. Awuah, J. Atehnkeng, A. Elzein, P. J. Cotty and R. Bandyopadhyay. 2020. Field efficacy of two atoxigenic biocontrol products for mitigation of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut in Ghana. Biol. Control. 150: 104351.

AgroBig Team 2016. Maize Value Chain Analysis for Mecha District. Programme for Agribusiness Induced Growth in the Amhara region. Available online: https://agrobig.org/documents/1.3_Value_Chain_Analysis_MAIZE_Update_Nov_2016.pdf

Ahmed, U. I., L. Ying, M. K. Bashir, M. Abid and F. Zulfiqar. 2017. Status and determinants of small farming households’ food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan. PloS ONE. 12: e0185466.

Ajmal, M., W. Bedale, A. Akram and J.-H. Yu. 2022. Comprehensive review of aflatoxin contamination, impact on health and food security, and management strategies in Pakistan. Toxins. 14: 845.

Ali, E. B., J. A. Awuni and G. Danso-Abbeam. 2018. Determinants of fertilizer adoption among smallholder cocoa farmers in the Western Region of Ghana. Cogent Food Agric. 4: 1538589.

Annunziata, L., M. Schirone, P. Visciano, G. Campana, M. R. De Massis and G. Migliorati. 2021. Determination of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in organic wheat flour under different storage conditions. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 56: 4139-4148.

Atuhe, I. 2021. Beware aflatoxins cause liver cancer. New vision. Available online: https://www.newvision.co.ug/articledetails/98144

Awunyo-Vitor, D. 2018. Theoretical and conceptual framework of access to financial services by farmers in emerging economies: Implication for empirical analysis. Acta Univ. Sapientiae Econ. Bus. 6: 43-59.

Colnago, P., and S. Dogliotti. 2020. Introducing labor productivity analysis in a co-innovation process to improve sustainability in mixed family farming. Agric. Syst. 177: 102732

Danso-Abbeam, G., Ehiakpor, D.S. and Aidoo, R. 2018. Agricultural extension and its effects on farm productivity and income: insight from Northern Ghana. Agric. Food Secur. 7:74-81.

Dimick, C. 2012. Health Information Management 2025: Current “Health IT Revolution”. Drastically Changes HIM in The Near Future. J. AHIMA. 83(8): 24-31.

Elias, A., M. Nohmi, K. Yasunobu and A. Ishida. 2015. Farmers’ Satisfaction with Agricultural Extension Service and Its Influencing Factors: A Case Study in Northwest Ethiopia. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 18: 39-53.

Gashaw, T.A., Z.B. Ayele and A.A. Berhanu. 2017. Effects of Land fragmentation on productivity in Northwestern Ethiopia. Adv. Agric. 2017: 4509605.

Haregewoin, T. 2021. Irrigation Impact on Crop Productivity in Tigray, Ethiopia. Int. J. Creative Res. Thoughts. 9(8): 368-376.

Heckman, J. J., 1979. Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica.  47:153–61.

Hijbeek, R., Pronk, A A., Ittersum, M. K., and Berge, H. F. M. 2018. What drives farmers to increase soil organic matter? Insights from the Netherlands. Soil Use Manage. 34(1): 56-63.

Hossain, A. 2020. Maize – production and use. Bangladesh wheat and maize research institute. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82912.

IITA 2019. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture. Maize production; Available at: www.iita.org/cropsnew/maize/ (Accessed 16 Feb, 2019)

Imade, F., E. M. Ankwasa, H. Geng, S. Ullah, T. Ahmad, G. Wang, C. Zhang, O. Dada, F. Xing, Y. Zheng and Y. Liu. 2021. Updates on food and feed mycotoxin contamination and safety in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. Mycology. 12: 245-260.

Jallow, A., H. Xie, X. Tang, Z. Qi and P. Li. 2021. Worldwide aflatoxin contamination of agricultural products and foods: From occurrence to control. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 20. 2332-2381.

Kumar, P., D.K. Mahato, M. Kamle, T.K. Mohanta and S.G. Kang. 2016. Aflatoxins: A global concern for food safety, human health and their management. Front. Mircrobiol. 7:21-70.

Kwapong, N.A., D.A. Ankrah, J.N. Anaglo  and E.Y. Vukey. 2021. Determinants of scale of farm operation in the eastern region of Ghana. Agric. Food Sec.10(31):234-256.

Leggieri, M. C., P. Toscano and P. Battilani. 2021. Predicted aflatoxin b1 increase in Europe due to climate change: Actions and reactions at global level. Toxins. 13: 292.

Liverpool-Tasie, L. S. O., B.T. Omonona, A. Sanou and W.O. Ogunleye. 2017. Is increasing inorganic fertilizer use for maize production in SSA a profitable proposition? Evidence from Nigeria. Food Policy. 67:41-51.

Lokshin, M., and Sajaia, Z. 2004. Maximum likelihood estimation of Endogenous Switching Regression Models. Stata J. 4(3): 82 – 89.

Mitchell, N.J., E. Bowers, C. Hurburgh and F. Wu. 2016. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination. Food Addit. Contam. Part A: Chem. Anal. Control Expo. Risk Assess. 33(3): 540–550.

Moral, J., M. T. Garcia-Lopez, B. X. Camiletti, R. Jaime, T. J. Michailides. R. Bandyopadhyay and A. Ortega-Beltran, 2020. Present status and perspective on the future use of aflatoxin biocontrol products. Agronomy. 10: 491.

NBS. 2018. National Bureau of Statistics. Quarterly report. Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Abuja. 124(4): 45-56. Available online: https://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/

Ninh, L.K. 2021. Economic role of education in agriculture: evidence from rural Vietnam. J. Econ. Develop. 23(1):47-58.

Nishimwe, K., E. Bowers, J. d. D. Ayabagabo, R. Habimana, S. Mutiga and D. Maier. 2019. Assessment of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination and associated risk factors in feed and feed ingredients in Rwanda. Toxins. 11: 270.

Oluyede, A. A., O.A. Thompson and O.B. Akintuyi. 2021. Forecasting the effect of climate variability on yam yield in rainforest and Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. J. Glob. Agric. Ecol. 11(4): 1-12.

Padhy, C. and B.K. Jena. 2015. Effect of agricultural education on farmers efficiency: A Review. Int. J. Eng. Technol. Manage. Appl. Sci. 3(2): 247-258.

Ponce-Garcia, N., N. Palacios-Rojas, S. Serna-Saldivar and S. García-Lara. 2021. Aflatoxin contamination in maize: occurrence and health implications in Latin America. World Mycotoxin J. 14: 247-258.

Posadas-Dominguez, R. R., C.M. Arriaga-Jordon and F.E. Martinez-Castaneda. 2014. Contribution of family labor to profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico. Trop Anim Health Prod. 46:235-240.

PWC 2021. Positioning Nigeria as Africa’s leader in maize production for AfCFTA. Pricewaterhouse corporation. Available online: https://www.pwc.com/ng/en/assets/pdf/positioning-nigeria-as-africa-leader-in-maize-production-for-afcfta.pdf

Rada, N. and K.O. Fuglie. 2018. New perspectives on farm size and productivity. Food Policy. 84:147-152.

Ranum, P., J.P. Pena-Rosas and M.N. Garcia-Casal. 2014. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1312(1): 23-34.

Savić, Z., T. Dudaš, M. Loc, M. Grahovac, D. Budakov, I. Jajić, S. Krstović, T. Barošević, R. Krska, M. Sulyok, V. Stojšin, M. Petreš, A. Stankov, J. Vukotić and F. Bagi. 2020. Biological control of aflatoxin in maize grown in Serbia. Toxins. 12: 162.

Thompson, O. A. 2013. Effects of climate change on cocoa outputs in Ekiti and Ondo State, Nigeria-Co-integration approach. J. Sustain. Technol. 4(3):34-40.

Thompson, O. A. and Amos, T. T 2017. Farmers’ Perception of climate change in southern Guinea Savannah and Rainforest Agro-Ecological Zone of Southwest Nigeria.  Moor J. Agric. Res. 18: 183-196.

Thompson, O. A., O.A. Aturamu, B.O. Ajiboye and O.O. Oyenike. 2021. Effect of pond rental market system on aquaculture farmers in the coastal communities of Nigeria, J. Appl. Aquacul. DOI: 10.1080/10454438.2021.2015039

Tulsan, M. 2014. Profitability Analysis (A comparative study of SAIL & TATA Steel). IOSR J. Econ. Fin. 3(2):19-22.

Udomkum, P, Wiredu, A. N., Nagle, M., Bandyopadhyay, R., Muller, J., Vanlanuwe, B. 2017 Mycotoxins in sub Sharan Africa: Present situation, socio-economic impact, awareness, and outlook. Food Control. 72:110-122

USDA 2022. United State Department of Agriculture. Farm Labor. Economic Research Service. Size and Composition of the U.S. Agricultural Workforce. Available online: https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/farm-economy/farm-labor

Villers, P. 2014 Aflatoxins and safe storage. Front. Microbiol. 5:158

Wambua, D. M, Gichimu, B. M and Ndirangu, S. N. 2021. Smallholder coffee productivity as affected by socioeconomic factors and technology adoption. Int. J. Agron. 2021: 8852371.

WHO 2018. World Health Organization Database. Food Safety Digest Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses. Available online: https://www.who.int/foodsafety/FSDigest_Aflatoxins_EN.pdf

Xu, F., R. Baker, T. Whitaker, H. Luo, Y. Zhao, A. Stevenson, C. Boesch and G. Zhang. 2022. Review of good agricultural practices for smallholder maize farmers to minimise aflatoxin contamination. World Mycotoxin J. 15: 171-186.

Yazd, S.D.  S.A. Wheeler and A. Zu. 2019. Key risk factors affecting farmers’ mental health: A systematic review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 16(23): 4849.

Yu, J., D. A. Hennessy and F. Wu. 2020. The impact of Bt corn on aflatoxin-related insurance claims in the United States. Sci. Report. 10: 10046.



Subscribe to Get JEAS Updates

We’d love to keep you updated with our latest articles and news 😎

We don’t spam! Read our [link]privacy policy[/link] for more info.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *