Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources In Agriculture Sector of Sudan – Abstract

Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Basheer et al., 2023. 25(1&2):51-66.

Open Access – Review Article

Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in the Agriculture Sector of Sudan, After the Secession of South Sudan 
Amir K. Basheer 1,*, Abubaker B. Ali 2,*, Nazar A. Elshaikh 3, Gamareldawla H. Agbna 2
1 College of Agricultural Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China
2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Shambat, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sinnar, Sudan

Abstract: Extreme climate events and anthropogenic activities pressurize water resources and aggravate water security challenges. Sustainable use of water in Sudan has two major issues: agriculture and the separation of South Sudan. Thus, this study aims to assess Sudan’s water resources, estimate future water demands, and shed light on the prospects of sustainable utilization. Irrigated agriculture consumes approximately 86% of blue water. Rainfall is erratic and concentrated over a short period; groundwater resources require technical and economically feasible means of extraction. Storage capacity facilities are limited to short-term storage. Therefore, integrated water resource management strategies, such as surface water and rainwater harvesting techniques, should be applied to utilize seasonal stream water and increase rainfed agricultural production. The use of artificial groundwater recharge techniques, where appropriate, could increase the storage capacity and maximize utilization.

Keywords: Africa; Nile Basin; sustainable utilization; transboundary water cooperation; water management; water resources.
*Corresponding author:
Amir K. Basheer,; Abubaker B. Ali: 

Cite this article as:
Basheer, A.K., A.B. Ali, N. A. Elshaikh and G.H. Agbna. 2023. Sustainable utilization of water resources in the agriculture sector of Sudan, after the secession of South Sudan. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 25(1&2): 51-66. [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]

Copyright © Basheer et al., 2023  This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.

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Competing Interest Statement: All the authors declare that they have no competing interests.

List of Abbreviations: BCM: Billion Cubic Meters. MCM: Million Cubic Meters.

Author’s Contribution:  A.K.B. planned and conducted this research, collected data, wrote, and revised the manuscript under the supervision of A.E.M., while N.A.E. and A.B.A. revised the manuscript and produced all tables and figures. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.

Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the Ministry of Irrigation & Water Resources and Electricity for support in providing us with the data. Our thanks are extended to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Sudan Meteorological Authority and Nile basin initiative for data. Also, authors are thankful to anonymous reviewers for giving constructive comments to revise the manuscript.


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