Evaluating Heavy Metals Contamination in Soil, Water, and Vegetables Cultivated in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Ghanem et al., 2023. 25(3&4):xx-xx.

Open Access – Research Article

Evaluating Heavy Metals Contamination in Soil, Water, and Vegetables Cultivated in three Areas of Ad Dawadmi Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Kholoud Z. Ghanem 1, Mohammed E. S. Abdalla 2 and Ietidal E. Mohamed 1,3*

1University of Shaqra, College of Science and Humanities/ Ad Dawadmi, Department of Biology, Ad-Dawadmi 11911, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2University of Khartoum, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, Khartoum 11115, Sudan
3University of Khartoum, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Khartoum 11115, Sudan

Abstract: Irrigation of croplands with untreated wastewater and application of industrial waste has caused contamination of soils and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in edible parts plants, threatening human health. The concentrations of seven different heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Hg) were investigated in the soils, water and the root, fruits and leaf of carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum), from three regions; Arjaa, Sajir and Ad Dawadmi, in Ad Dawadmi Governorate, Western Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Vegetable contamination with heavy metals residue is rarely reported from the studied area of KSA. The heavy metal contents of the samples were determined after digestion of samples using nitric acid, using Inductively-Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant translocation factors (TF) were calculated throughout this study. The results revealed that the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn and Ni in all vegetable samples from the three regions were found under the maximum permissible concentration of WHO and FAO Maximum Levels, 73, 425, 99 and 67 [(µg/g) mg/kg], respectively. The mean concentration levels of Cd and Pb in the edible vegetable samples from Arjaa and Sajir regions are higher than their permissible limits by WHO, 0.36, 0.21; 1.29, 1.68 with respect to 0.2, 0.3, respectively. In this study, Hg was not detected in all samples, vegetables, soil and water. The samples of water from Sajir and Ad Dawadmi and the soil from Sajir exceed the standard level of Zn (180, 157 and 103 µg/g respectively). The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soil and water from the three regions exceed their respective permissible limits. It could be concluded that in the study areas, the uptake of certain toxic and heavy metals by vegetables may increase and thus a risk factor for the consumption of such vegetables. Detailed studies are required to further access threats of heavy metal contamination in the region.

Keywords: Ad Dawadmi, Environmental pollution, Heavy metals contamination, soil contamination, toxic metals, vegetable contamination, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
*Corresponding author: 
Ietidal E. Mohamed, ietidalm@su.edu.sa, ietidalem11@gmail.com  

Cite this article as:

Ghanem, K.Z., M.E.s. Abdalla and I.E. Mohamed. 2023. Evaluating heavy metals contamination in soil, water and vegetables cultivated in three areas of Ad Dawadmi Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 25 (3&4): XX-xx [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations

Copyright © Ghanem et al., 2023  This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.

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