Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Elhassa et al., 2023. 25(1&2):18-26.
Open Access – Research Article
Effect of Production Systems on Micro-Mineral Composition of Camel Milk Produced in Sudan
Sarra M. B. Mohamed Elhassa 1, Hafiz I.I. Osman 2, Ibtisam E. M. El Zubeir 3,*
1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
2 Ministry of Production and Economic Resources, North Darfur State, Sudan
3,* Department of Dairy Production, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, P. O. Box 321, Khartoum, Sudan
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of three different management systems, (traditional nomadic, semi-nomadic, and intensive) on the macro-mineral content of milk of camels in different parity orders and stages of lactation. The samples (120) were examined to determine the calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) content of camel milk collected from North Darfur and Khartoum states. The results indicated the highest Ca (154.6±2.3 mg/100g), Na (215.6±8.39 mg/100g), and P (77.2±1.43 mg/100g) content in the milk of camels kept in the semi-nomadic production system in the Green Valley (Khartoum State) and the lowest values (111.4±2.2 mg/100g, 148.6±5.12 mg/100g and 66.9±1.39 mg/100g, respectively) were reported for the camel milk from a nomadic system in North Darfour State. Both areas revealed the lowest content of Mg in camel milk, while Mg content of camel milk showed the highest content in the camels reared in the semi-nomadic system of Hamad well (39.1±2.01 mg/100g) and the intensive system in El Huda (34.0±2.01 mg/100g). However, a significantly (P<0.05) higher value for K (317.8±12.17 mg/100g) was recorded in the milk obtained from camel browse in the nomadic system of North Darfour State. Moreover, the levels of Ca, Na and Mg showed a reduction in the milk of camels with the advancement of parity, meanwhile, K and P revealed an increasing trend. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between the macro mineral contents of camel milk as affected by the variations of parity orders and age of camels. In conclusion, results demonstrated high variability in the macro-mineral contents of camel milk, this variability was associated with the types of production systems, while slight variation might occur for the parity orders, stages of lactation and the age of camels.
Keywords:Camel Milk, Production System, Nomadic, Semi Nomadic, Intensive, Parity Orders, Stage of Lactation, Age.
*Corresponding author: Ibtisam E. M. El Zubeir, email: Ibtisamelzubeir17@gmail.com, Ibtisam.email@example.com
Cite this article as:
Elhassa, S.M.B.M. H.I.I. Osman, I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2023. Effect of production systems on micro-mineral composition of camel milk produced in Sudan. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 25 (1&2): 18-27. [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]
Copyright © Elhassan et al., 2023. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.
Similar Articles Published in JEAS
- Sahifa et al., 2022. Identification of volatile constituents and biological activity potential of Abelia triflora. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 24:xx-xx [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]
- Qaisrani, et al., Arabinoxylans from psyllium husk: A review. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 6:33-29. [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]
- Imran, et al., Health benefits of grapes polyphenols. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 10: 40-51. [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]
Abrhaley, A. and S. Leta. 2018. Medicinal value of camel milk and meat. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 46(1): 552-558.
Ait El Alia, O., Y. Zine-Eddine, F. Kzaiber, A. Oussama and K. Boutoial. 2023. Towards the improvement of camel milk consumption in Morocco. Small Rumin. Res. 219: 106888.
Akhmetsadykova, S. H., G. Konuspayeva and N. Akhmetsadykov. 2022. Camel breeding in Kazakhstan and future perspectives. Animal Front. 12: 71-77.
Alhaj, O. A., N. J. Altooq, A. F. Alenezi, A. I. Janahi, M. I. Janahi, A. M. Humood, M. M. AlRasheed, N. L. Bragazzi, H. A. Jahrami and B. Faye. 2022. Camel milk composition by breed, season, publication year, and country: A global systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 21: 2520-2559.
Alhaj, O. and H. Alkanhal. 2010. Compositional, technological and nutritional aspects of dromedary camel milk. Int. Dairy J. 20(12): 811-821.
Al-Juboori, A.T., M. Mohamed, J. Rashid, J. Kurian and S. El Refaey. 2013. Nutritional and medicinal value of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk. WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. Food Environ. 170: 221-232.
Aludatt, M.H., E. Khalil, M.A. Abdulaziz, A. Almajwal, H. Alkhalidy, A. Al-Tawaha and I. Alli. 2010. Variations of physical and chemical properties and mineral and vitamin composition of camel milk from eight locations in Jordan. J. Food Agric. Environ. 8(3&4): 16-20.
Anwar, I., F. B. Khan, S. Maqsood and M. A. Ayoub. 2022. Camel milk targeting insulin receptor—toward understanding the antidiabetic effects of camel milk. Front. Nutrit. 8: 819278
AOAC 2003. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Ed. Washington, D.C.
Arain, M.A., G.B. Khaskheli, A.H. Shah, I.B. Marghazani, G.S. Barham, Q.A. Shah, F.M. Khand, J.A. Buzdar, F. Soomro and S.A. Fazlani. 2022. Nutritional significance and promising therapeutic/medicinal application of camel milk as a functional food in human and animals: a comprehensive review. Anim. Biotechnol. https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2022.2059490
Ayyash, M., A. Abdalla, A. Alhammadi, C.S. Ranadheera, M. Affan Baig, B. Al-Ramadi, G. Chen, A. Kamal-Eldin and T. Huppertz. 2021. Probiotic survival, biological functionality and untargeted metabolomics of the bioaccessible compounds in fermented camel and bovine milk after in vitro digestion. Food Chem. 363: 130243.
Babiker, W.I.A. and I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2014. Impact of husbandry, stages of lactation and parity number on milk yield and chemical composition of dromedary camel milk. Emirate J. Food Agric. 26(4): 333-341.
Benmeziane – Derradji, F. 2021. Evaluation of camel milk: gross composition—a scientific overview. Tropical Anim. Health Prod. 53: 308.
Chapman, H.D. and P.E. Pratt 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. University of California Riverside, Div. Agric. Sci.
Deeba, F., A.S. Qureshi and R. Asrar. 2020. Calcium and phosphorus: backbone of camel health – A Review. EC Vet. Sci. 5(3): 1-9.
Dowelmadina, I.M.M., I.E.M. El Zubeir, A.D.A. Salim and O.H.M.H. Arabi. 2014. Influence of some factors on composition of dromedary camel milk in Sudan. Global J. Anim. Sci. Res. 2(2): 120-129.
Dowelmadina, I.M.M., I.E.M. El Zubeir, O.H.M.H. Arabi and A.D. Abaker. 2015. Performance of she camels under traditional nomadic and semi-intensive management in Sudan. Livestock Res. Rural Develop. 27 (6): 107.
El Amin, E.B., O.A.O. El Owni and I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2006. Effect of parity number, lactation stage and season on camel milk composition in Khartoum State, Sudan. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference on Camel. Part IV: 2173-2183. Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, p. 9-11.
El Zubeir, I.E.M. and E.M. Nour 2006. Studies on some camel management practices and constraints in pre-urban areas of Khartoum State, Sudan. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 1(2): 104-112.
El-Hanafy, A. A., Y. M. Saad, S. A. Alkarim, H. A. Almehdar, F. M. Alzahrani, M. A. Almatry, V. N. Uversky and E. M. Redwan. 2023. Yield and composition variations of the milk from different camel breeds in Saudi Arabia. Sci. 5: 2.
Elhassan, S.M.B.M., Dowelmadina, I.M.M. and I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2016. Variations in some macro minerals of camel milk as affected by management system, parity orders and stages of lactation. J. Camelid Sci. 9: 54-62.
Hammam, A. R. 2019. Compositional and therapeutic properties of camel milk: a review. Em. J. Food Agric. 31(3): 148-152.
Ho, T. M., Z. Zou and N. Bansal. 2022. Camel milk: A review of its nutritional value, heat stability, and potential food products. Food Res. Int. 153: 110870.
Jilo, K. and D. Tegegne. 2016. Chemical composition and medicinal values of camel milk. Int. J. Res. Stud. Biosci. 4(4): 13-25.
Kaskous, S. 2016. Importance of camel milk for human health. Em. J. Food Agric. 28(3): 158-163.
Khaskheli, M., M.A. Arain, S. Chaudhry, A.H. Soomro and T.A. Qureshi. 2005. Physico-chemical quality of camel milk. J. Agric. Soc. Sci. 2: 164-166.
Konuspayeva, G., B. Faye and G. Loiseau. 2009. The composition of camel milk: A meta-analysis of the literature data. J. Food Comp. Anal. 22: 95-101.
Konuspayeva, G., B. Faye and G. Loiseau. 2010. Physiological change in camel milk composition (Camelus dromedarius): 1. Effect of lactation stage. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42: 495-499.
Konuspayeva, G., E. Lemarie, B. Faye and G. Loiseau and D. Montet. 2008. Fatty acid and cholesterol composition of camel’s (Camelus bactrianus, Camelus dromedaries and hybrids) milk in Kazakhstan. Dairy Sci. Technol. 88: 327-340.
Malik, A., A. Al-Senaidy, E. Skrzypczak-Jankun and J. Jankun. 2012. A study of the anti-diabetic agents of camel milk. Int. J. Mol. Med. 30: 585-592.
Mehaia, M.A., M.A. Hablas, K.M. Abdel-Rahman and S.A. El-Mougy. 1995. Milk composition of Majaheim, Wadah and Hamra camels in Saudi Arabia. Food Chem. 52:115-122.
MOARF 2016. Ministry of Animal Resource and Fisheries. Statistical Bulletin for Animal Resources. Information Centre, Khartoum.
Mohamed, M.E. and I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2020. Effect of parity orders on the chemical composition of camel milk from different production system in Khartoum State, Sudan. J. Biotech. Res. Biochem. 3(1):006.
Mostafa, T.H., O.M.1. El-Malky, A.M.1. Abd El-Salaam and A.M. Nabih. 2017. Some studies on milk production and its composition in Maghrebi she-camel under farming and traditional pastoral systems in Egypt. Int. J. Hort. Agric. 2(2): 1-9.
Musa, H.H., E.S. Shuiep and I.E.M. El Zubier. 2006. Camel husbandry among pastoralists in Darfur, western Sudan. Nomad. Peoples. 10: 101-104.
Mustafa, A.B., E. Haroun and K.A.A. Atti. 2014. Nutritional evaluation of wild pasture as feed for camel in Darfur Region. J. Sci. Agric. 1 (3): 114-117.
Muthukumaran, M. S., P. Mudgil, W. N. Baba, M. A. Ayoub and S. Maqsood. 2022. A comprehensive review on health benefits, nutritional composition and processed products of camel milk. Food Rev. Int. 1-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2021.2008953
Nikkhah, A. 2011. Equidae, camel, and yak milks as functional foods: A Review. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 1:116.
Omer, R.H. and A.H. Eltinay. 2008. Chemical composition of camel’s colostrum and milk in United Arab Emirates. Arab Univ. J. Agric. Sci. 16(1): 127-133.
Riyadh, S.A., F.A. Faris, I. Elsyed, I., A.A. Mohammed, S. Ahmed and A. Moez. 2012. Effect of production system, breed, parity, and stage of lactation on milk composition of dromedary camels of Saudi Arabia. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 11: 141-147.
Seifu, E. 2022. Recent advances on camel milk: Nutritional and health benefits and processing implications: A review. AIMS Agric. Food.7:777-804.
Shamat, A.M.A. 2008. Chemical composition and mineral content of soil, plant and animal tissues in some camel production areas in the Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Shuiep, E.S. and I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2008. Current practices and future prospective in pre-urban camel farming in Khartoum State, Sudan. Competition for Resources in a Changing World: New Drive for Rural Development. Tropentag, 7-9 October 2008, Hohenheim, Germany.
Shuiep, E.S. and I.E.M. El Zubeir. 2012. The semi intensive camel farming a newly adopted system in Sudan. ISOCARD International Conference. Sultanate of Oman, 29th January – 1st February 2012, 3:167-169.
Shuiep, E.S., I.E.M. El Zubeir and I.A. Yousif. 2014. Compositional quality of camel milk and some husbandry practices associated with camel milk production in two production systems in Sudan. Sudan J. Agric. Vet. Sci. 15 (2): 10-18.
Sumaira, A. M. S., G. A. Solangi, I. Anwar and Q. Kalwar. 2020. Composition and beneficial impact of camel milk on human health. Punjab. Univ. J. Zool. 35: 179-189.
Swelum, A. A., M. T. El-Saadony, M. Abdo, R. A. Ombarak, E. O. S. Hussein, G. Suliman, A. R. Alhimaidi, A. A. Ammari, H. Ba-Awadh, A. E. Taha, K. A. El-Tarabily and M. E. Abd El-Hack. 2021. Nutritional, antimicrobial and medicinal properties of Camel’s milk: A review. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 28: 3126-3136.
Tilahun, A., B.Teklu and D. Hoag. 2017. Challenges and contributions of crop production in agro-pastoral systems of Borana Plateau, Ethiopia. Res. Policy Pract. 7: 2.
Vincenzetti, S., N. Cammertoni, R. Rapaccetti, G. Santini, Y. Klimanova, J.-J. Zhang and P. Polidori. 2022. Nutraceutical and functional properties of Camelids’ milk. Beverages. 8: 12.
Yoganandi, J., B. M. Mehta, K. Wadhwani, V. Darji and K. Aparnathi. 2014. Evaluation and comparison of camel milk with cow milk and buffalo milk for gross composition. J. Camel Pract. Res. 21: 259-265.
Zhao, D.B., Y.H. Bai and Y.W. Niu. 2015. Composition and characteristics of Chinese Bactrian camel milk. Small Rumin Res. 127: 58–67.
Zibaee, S., M. Yousefi, A. Taghipour, M. A. Kiani and M. R. Noras. 2015. Nutritional and therapeutic characteristics of camel milk in children: A systematic review. Electron. Physician. 7: 1523.