Blue Rock Pigeon As An Indicator Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Pollution: A Review

Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Abubaker et al., 2024. 26(1&2):XX.

Open Access – Review Article

Blue Rock Pigeon As An Indicator Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Pollution: A Review
Muhammad Abubakar 1,*, Abdul Wahab Hussain 1, Muhammad Rafiq Khan 1, Nabia Sarfraz 1

1 College of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds. They are released from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Their widespread presence in the environment is of global concern, as their exposure has been associated with various health issues in birds, other animals and humans. Researchers have studied various routes of PAH contamination in birds by injecting different levels of PAHs into egg cells, eggshells, or yolks. Generally, short-term effects are tracked; however, limited efforts were made to monitor their long-term effects.. Four to six-ringed PAHs are more hazardous by causing cancer, reproductive issues, bioaccumulation, decreased weight, increased organ development, reduced immunity, decreased fertility, lower survival rates, higher metabolisms, reduced egg production, and decreased clutch size of birds. High PAH-related reproductive disorders have been observed in birds living in areas near human populations and after some oil spill accidents in coastal and marine environments.

Keywords: Bioindicator species, Biomagnification, Ecological risk assessments, Ecotoxicology, Environmental monitoring, Environmental stressors, Species sensitivity.
*Corresponding author:
Muhammad Abubakar, muhammadabubakar704@gmail.com 

Cite this article as:

Abubaker, M., A.W. Hussain, M.R. Khan and N. Sarfraz. 2024. Blue Rock Pigeon As An Indicator Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pah) Pollution: A Review. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 26 (1&2): [Abstract] [View FullText] [Citations]. 


Copyright © Abubaker et al., 2024  This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.


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Competing Interest Statement: The authors have declared that they have no competing interests and there is no conflict of interest exists.


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