Drought Stress Mitigation by Foliar Feeding of Potassium and Amino Acids in Wheat

Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS). Ahmad et al., 2019. Volume 18: 10-18

Open Access – Research Article

Drought Stress Mitigation by Foliar Feeding of Potassium and
Amino Acids in Wheat

Ali Ahmad 1, Zubair Aslam 1, Muhammad Zahaib Ilyas 1, Hafeez Ameer 1,
Ahmad Mahmood 1, Muhammad Rehan 1

1 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Abstract: Wheat growth and yield are highly affected when it suffers to drought stress. The effects of drought on wheat can be alleviated by the foliar spray of potassium and amino acids. This experiment was performed in the net-house, a pot study, conditions with the objective to mitigate the drought’s threat against wheat growth and yield. In this study, three treatments were applied involving two different nutrients [F0: Control; F1: Amino Acids @ 5ml/L; F2: 2% Potassium] which were applied through foliar spray on wheat grown in an aptly watered (WW: 60% of the field capacity) as well as under the drought (DD: 40% of the field capacity) situations in the soil stuffed earthen’s pots. Crop was harvested at maturity and several growth related (no. of productive tillers/plant, no. of spikelets/spike, no. of grains/spike, hundred grains wt. and harvest index) attributes plus nutrient assimilated (leaf’s potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus contents) by the wheat were determined. Relative water as well as chlorophyll content of leaf was also determined at 60 days after sowing (DAS). The outcomes of this trial illustrated that drought severely affected the above stated attributes. The foliar sprays of potassium and amino acids significantly improved the morphological as well as biochemical characters of wheat when grown in the presence as well as absence of drought stress condition. Chlorophyll contents of leaf were enhanced up to a level where radiation use efficiency of the wheat was optimum. The recommendation deduced from this experiment showed that the foliar application of amino acids and potassium is a high value approach to alleviate the drought’s effects on wheat to enhance the yield.
Keywords: Potassium, amino acid, morphology, water stress, foliar spray.

*Corresponding author: Ali Ahmad

Cite this article as:

Ahmad, A., Z. Aslam, M.Z. Ilyas, H. Ameer, A. Mahmood and M. Rehan. 2019. Drought stress mitigation by foliar feeding of potassium and amino acids in wheat. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 18:10-18.. [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]

Copyright © Ahmad et al., 2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are appropriately cited and credited.

Similar Articles Published in JEAS

  • Hasmi, Q.A., B. Nawaz, R. Ah,ad, M. Wassaya, M. Usama, T.H. Ali, M.S. Nawaz and M. Kamran. 2024. Germination and seedling development of canola (Brassica napus L.) in response to contrasting temperature regimes. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 26 (1&2) [Abstract] [View FullText] [Citations]. 
  • Sajjad, Z.U., Z. Fatima, M.S. Sabir, M.A. Bashir, D. Muhammad, M.H. Yasin, N. Ilahi and M. Subhan. 2024. Evaluating Sunflower Genotypic Yield Variability under Arid Agroclimatic Conditions of Layyah, Pakistan. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 26 (1&2): [Abstract] [View FullText] [Citations]. 
  • Ghanem, K.Z., M.E.s. Abdalla and I.E. Mohamed. 2023. Evaluating heavy metals contamination in soil, water and vegetables cultivated in three areas of Ad Dawadmi Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 25 (3&4): 1-10 [Abstract] [View FullText] [Citations].
  • Zaib et al., 2022. Water Stress in Crop Plants, Implications for Sustainable Agriculture: Current and Future Prospects. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 24: xx-xx. [Abstract] [View Full-Text]
  • Zahalan, R. and M.M. Alzoubi. 2021. Effect of Organic Physical Soil Amending on Deficit Irrigation Efficiency of potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.). Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 23(1&2): 11-18. [ View Full-Text ]  [Citations]
  • Ahmad, A., Z. Aslam, N. Iqbal, M. Idrees, K. Bellitürk, S.Rehman, H. Ameer,, M.U. Ibrahim, Samiullah and M. Rehan. 2019. Effect of exogenous application of osmolytes on growth and yield of wheat under drought conditions. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 21:6-13. [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]
  • Nasir, M.W., and Z. Toth. 2021. Effect of drought stress on morphology, yield, and chlorophyll concentration of Hungarian potato genotypes. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 23(3&4): 8-16. [View Full-Text]  [Citations]
  • Nasir, M.W.,  A. Yasmeen, M. Imran and T. Zoltan. 2019. Seed priming to alleviate drought stress in cotton. Journal of Environmental& Agricultural Sciences. 21:14-22.
    [Abstract] [View Full-Text] [Citations]
  • Ahmad, I., S.M.A. Basra, S. Hussain, S.A. Hussain, Hafeez-ur-Rehman, A. Rehman and A. Ali. 2015. Priming with ascorbic acid, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide improves seedling growth of spring maize at suboptimal temperature. Journal of Environmental & Agricultural Sciences. 3:14-22. [ ] [View Full-Text] [Citations]


Adhikari, B., S.K. Dhungana, I.-D. Kima and D.-H. Shin. 2019. Effect of foliar application of potassium fertilizers on soybean plants under salinity stress. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 19(4): 261-269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2019.02.001

Ahmad, R., E.A. Waraich, M.Y. Ashraf, S. Ahmad and T. Aziz. 2014. Does nitrogen fertilization enhance drought tolerance in sunflower? A review. J. Plant Nutr. 37(6): 942-963. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2013.868480

Ahmad, Z., S. Anjum, E.A. Waraich, M.A. Ayub, T. Ahmad, R.M.S. Tariq, R. Ahmad and M.A. Iqbal. 2018. Growth, physiology, and biochemical activities of plant responses with foliar potassium application under drought stress – a review. J. Plant Nutr. 41(13): 1734-1743. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2018.1459688

Alfredo, A.C.A. and T.L. Setter. 2000. Response of cassava to water deficit: Leaf area growth and abscisic acid. Crop Sci.40: 131-137. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.401131x

Amin, A., W. Nasim, M. Mubeen, S. Sarwar, P. Urich, A. Ahmad, A. Wajid, T. Khaliq, F. Rasul, H.M. Hammad, et al. 2018. Regional climate assessment of precipitation and temperature in Southern Punjab (Pakistan) using SimCLIM climate model for different temporal scales. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 131(1): 121-131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1960-1

Ashraf, M. and M.R. Foolad. 2007. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ. Exp. Bot. 59: 206-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.12.006

Ashraf, R., Fayyaz-ul-Hassan, M. Ahmed and G. Shabbir. 2017. Wheat Physiological Response Under Drought. In: Ahmed, M., Stockle, C.O. (Eds.), Quantification of Climate Variability, Adaptation and Mitigation for Agricultural Sustainability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 211-231. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32059-5_10

Cakmak, I. 2005. The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 168: 521-530. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200420485

da Silva Folli-Pereira, M., A.C. Ramos, G.C. Canton, J.M. da Conceição, S.B. de Souza, A.J.D. Cogo, F.F. Figueira, F.J. Eutrópio and N. Rasool. 2016. Foliar application of trace elements in alleviating drought stress. In: Water Stress and Crop Plants: A Sustainable Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, p. 669-681. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119054450.ch38

Darand, M., M. Dostkamyan and M.I.A. Rehmani. 2017. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of extreme precipitation in Iran. Russian Meteorol. Hydrol. 42(6): 415-424. https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068373917060073

DeLille, J. M., Sehnke, P. C., and R.J. Ferl. 2001. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 family of signaling regulators. Plant Physiol. 126: 35-38. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.126.1.35

El-Ashry, M. S. and M.A. El-Kholy. 2005. Response of wheat cultivars to chemical desiccants under water stress conditions. J. Appl. Sci. 1: 253-262.

Fabian, A., E. Sáfrán, G. Szabó-Eitel, B. Barnabás and K. Jäger. 2019. Stigma Functionality and Fertility Are Reduced by Heat and Drought Co-stress in Wheat. Front. Plant Sci. 10:244.

Fernandez, V. and P.H. Brown. 2013. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients. Front. Plant Sci. 4: 289. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00244

García-Gaytán, V., F. Hernández-Mendoza, A.V. Coria-Téllez, S. García-Morales, E. Sánchez-Rodríguez, L. Rojas-Abarca and H. Daneshvar. 2018. Fertigation: Nutrition, stimulation and bioprotection of the root in high performance. Plants. 7(4): 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7040088

Giunta, F., R. Motzo and M. Deidda.1993. Effect of drought on yield and yield components of durum wheat and triticale in a Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res. 33: 399-409.

Hasanuzzaman, M., J.A. Mahmud, T.I. Anee, K. Nahar and M.T. Islam. 2018. Drought Stress Tolerance in Wheat: Omics Approaches in Understanding and Enhancing Antioxidant Defense. In: Zargar, S.M., Zargar, M.Y. (Eds.), Abiotic Stress-Mediated Sensing and Signaling in Plants: An Omics Perspective. Springer Singapore, Singapore, p. 267-307.

Hermans, C., J.P. Hammond, P.J. White and N. Verbruggen.2006. How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation? Trends Plant Sci. 11: 610- 617.

Hoad, S. P., G. Russell, M.E. Lucas and I.J. Bingham.2001. The management of wheat, barley and oats root systems. Adv. Agron.74: 193-246.

Hu, Y., Z. Burucs and U. Schmidhalter. 2008. Effect of foliar fertilization application on the growth and mineral nutrient content of maize seedlings under drought and salinity. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 54(1): 133-141.

Hussain, M., M.A. Malik, M. Farooq, M.Y. Ashraf and M.A. Cheema. 2008. Improving drought tolerance by exogenous application of glycinebetaine and salicylic acid in sunflower. J. Agron. Crop Sci.194: 193-199.

Hussain, R.A., R. Ahmad, F. Nawaz, M.Y. Ashraf and E.A. Waraich. 2016. Foliar NK application mitigates drought effects in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiol. Plant. 38(4): 83.

Hussain, S., M.F. Saleem, J. Iqbal, M. Ibrahim, S. Atta, T. Ahmed and M.I.A. Rehmani. 2014. Exogenous application of abscisic acid may improve the growth and yield of sunflower hybrids under drought. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci. 51(1): 49-58.

Jaleel, C.A., R. Gopi, B. Sanker, M. Gomathinayagam and R. Panneerselvam. 2008. Differential responses in water use efficiency in two varieties of Catharanthus roseus under drought stress. Comptes Rendus Biol. 331 42-47.

Jamtgard S., T. Nasholm and K. Huss-Danell. 2010. Nitrogen compounds in soil solutions of agricultural land. Soil Biol. Biochem.42: 2325-2330.

Karim, F., J. Iqbal, M. Shabbir, S. Kaleem and M.Q. Waqar. 2016. Response of cotton to foliar and soil applied nutrients under Dera Ghazi Khan conditions. J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 7: 14-18.

Karim, M.R. and M.A. Rahman. 2015. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian least developed countries. Weather Climate Extremes. 7: 24-35.

Khan, M.B., N. Hussain and M. Iqbal. 2001. Effect of water stress on growth and yield components of maize variety YHS 202. J. Res. Sci. 12: 15-18.

Khan, M.N., M. Mobin, Z.K. Abbas, K.A. AlMutairi, Z.H. Siddiqui. 2017. Role of nanomaterials in plants under challenging environments. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110: 194-209.

Khan, W., B. Prithiviraj and D.L. Smith. 2003. Photosynthetic response of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. J. Plant Physiol. 160-485.

Kunrath, T.R., G. Lemaire, V.O. Sadras and F. Gastal. 2018. Water use efficiency in perennial forage species: Interactions between nitrogen nutrition and water deficit. Field Crops Res. 222: 1-11.

Li, C., N.W. Menzies, P.M. Kopittke, P. Wang, E. Lombi, C. Tang, M. Cheng and D.L. Howard. 2018. Absorption of foliar-applied Zn fertilizers by trichomes in soybean and tomato. J. Exp. Bot. 69(10): 2717-2729.

Maeda H., and N. Dudareva. 2012. The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acids biosynthesis in plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 63: 73-105.

Manickavelu, A., Nadarajan, N., Ganesh, S. K., Gnanamalar, R. P., andBabu, R. C. 2006. Drought tolerance in rice: morphological and molecular genetic consideration. Plant Growth Regul. 50: 121-138.

Manivannan, P., C.A. Jaleel, A. Kishorekumar, B. Sankar, R. Somasundaram, R. Sridharan, and R. Panneerselvam,. 2007. Changes in antioxidant metabolism of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. By propiconazole under water deficit stress. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces. 57: 69-74.

Mengel, K., and E.A. Kirkby. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. 5th ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 210-213.

Milford, G.F.J. and A.E. Johnston .2007. Potassium and nitrogen interactions in crop production. Proceedings No. 615, Inter. Fertiliser Society, York, UK.

Minhas, R., S.M. Shah, L.H. Akhtar, S.A.S. Shah, A.A. Sadiq and S. Hussain. 2018. Development of a new drought tolerant cotton variety “BH-167” by using pedigree method. J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 14: 54-62.

Nasri, M. 2005. Interaction of nutrient elements and drought stress in cultivars of Brassica napus. The second international conference on integrated approaches to sustain and improve plant production under drought stress. Rome, Italy, September 109: 24-28.

Nawaz, F., R. Ahmad, M.Y. Ashraf, E.A. Waraich and S.Z. Khan. 2015. Effect of selenium foliar spray on physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought stress. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 113: 191-200.

Nawaz, U., S. Shahid, R. Ahmad, M.U. Ibrahim, A. Wajid, A. Manan, M.I. Qureshi. 2016. Indus Basin Irrigation System and climatic trends regarding glacial regimes and water runoff. J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 9: 28-36.

Noreen, S., Z. Fatima, S. Ahmad, H.-u.-R. Athar and M. Ashraf. 2018. Foliar Application of Micronutrients in Mitigating Abiotic Stress in Crop Plants. In: Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., Oku, H., Nahar, K., Hawrylak-Nowak, B. (Eds.), Plant Nutrients and Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Springer Singapore, Singapore, p. 95-117.

Plaut, Z., B.J. C.S. Butow and W. Wrigley. 2004. Transport of dry matter into developing wheat kernels and its contribution to grain yield under post- anthesis water deficit and evaluated temperature. Field Crops Res. 86:185-198.

Rad, A.H.S., J. Daneshian and A.R. Valadabadi. 2005. Water deficit stress effect at grain filling seed stages of rapeseed. The second international conference on integrated approaches to sustain and improve plant production under drought stress. Rome. Italy. 243: 24-28.

Rehmani, M.I.A., M.F. Fareed, A.M. Alvi, M. Ibrahim, N. Hussain, S. Hussain, J. Iqbal, M.A. Bashir and H. Nawaz. 2016. Delayed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation and role of diverse seeding rates and row spacings under semiarid agro-climatic situations. Pure Appl. Biol. 5(1): 72-84.

Richards, R.A., A.G. Condo and G.J. Rebetzke.2001.Traits to improve yield in dry environments, Mexico, DF, CIMMYT. 88-100.

Saeedipour, S. 2012. Effect of post-anthesis water deficit on yield and some physiological parameters on two wheat cultivars. African J. Agric. Res.7:3446-3452.

Sankar, B., C.A. Jaleel, P. Manivannan, A. Kishorekumar, R.Somasundaram and R. Panneerselvam. 2007. Drought induced biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Abelmoschus esculentus L. Acta Bot. Gallic. 66: 43-56.

Siddique, Z., S. Jan, S.R. Imadi, A. Gul and P. Ahmad. 2016. Drought stress and photosynthesis in plants. Water Stress and Crop Plants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 1-11.

Siringam, K., N. Juntawong,S. Cha-Um and C. Kirdmanee. 2011. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) roots under isoosmotic conditions. African J. Biotech. 10: 1340-1346.

Souza, R.P., E.C Machado, J.A.B. Silva, A.M.M.A. Lagoa, and J.A.G. Silveira. 2004. Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and some associated metabolic changes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) during water stress and recovery. Environ. Exp. Bot. 51:45-56.

Srivastava, A.K., C.M. Mboh, T. Gaiser, A. Kuhn, E. Ermias and F. Ewert. 2019. Effect of mineral fertilizer on rain water and radiation use efficiencies for maize yield and stover biomass productivity in Ethiopia. Agric. Syst. 168: 88-100.

Ullah, A., H. Sun, X. Yang, X. Zhang. 2017. Drought coping strategies in cotton: increased crop per drop. Plant Biotechnol. J. 15(3): 271-284.

Upadhyaya, H., S.K. Panda. 2019. Chapter 9 – Drought Stress Responses and Its Management in Rice. In: Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., Nahar, K., Biswas, J.K. (Eds.), Advances in Rice Research for Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Woodhead Publishing, p. 177-200.

Wimalasekera, R. 2016. Breeding crop plants for drought tolerance. Water Stress and Crop Plants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, p. 543-557.

Wolde, G.M., C. Trautewig, M. Mascher and T. Schnurbusch. 2019. Genetic insights into morphometric inflorescence traits of wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03305-4.

Yadav, R.S., C.T. Hash, F.R. Bidinger, K.M. Devos and C.J. Howarth. 2004. Genomic regions associated with grain yield and aspects of post flowering drought tolerance in pearl millet across environments and tester background. Euphytica. 136: 265-277.

Yadov, D.V. 2006. Potassium nutrition of sugarcane. In: Benbi DK et al. (eds) Balanced fertilization for sustaining crop productivity. Inter. Potash Insti. Horgen. 275– 288.

Zhao, T. J., S. Y. Sun, J.M. Liu, Q. Liu, Y.B. Liu and H.M. Zhou. 2006. Regulating the drought responsive element (DRE)-mediated signaling pathway by synergic functions of trans-active and transinactive DRE binding factors in Brassica napus. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 10752-10759.

Zhao, Y. 2010. Auxin biosynthesis and its role in plant development. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 61: 49-64.

Zivcak, M., M. Brestic and O. Sytar. 2016. Osmotic Adjustment and Plant Adaptation to Drought Stress. In: Hossain, M.A., Wani, S.H., Bhattacharjee, S., Burritt, D.J., Tran, L.-S.P. (Eds.), Drought Stress Tolerance in Plants, Vol 1: Physiology and Biochemistry. Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 105-143..

Join Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS)

Interested to join the JEAS Team

Join JEAS as a member Editorial Board see Editors’ Responsibilities

Join JEAS as a member Review Panel  Reviewers’ Responsibilities

(send your CV through email at editor.jeas@outlook.com)

JEAS Indexing Journal of Environmental EAS is indexed by reputed indexing services.

Suggest Indexing service/s through email (editor.jeas@outlook.com)

Call for Articles
Submit Your research for publication in the “Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS)” through email: editor.jeas@outlook.com

JEAS Recently Published and Highly Cited Articles
Citation record of JEAS: JEAS Google Scholar page
Follow  JEAS Facebook

Subscribe to Get JEAS Updates

We’d love to keep you updated with our latest articles and news😎

We don’t spam! Read our [link]privacy policy[/link] for more info.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *